Pipeline Infrastructures and transportation of petroleum
Pipelines are a vital part of the transportation and energy infrastructure of the United States. The pipeline carries crude oil and petroleum products for over two million miles through the 50 states and the over 200 000 kilometers pipeline. The natural gas national network carries more than 40 trillion cubic feet of gas each year, and these pipelines move more than 38 million barrels of crude oil and petroleum products each day. Most hazardous liquid and gas pipelines are below ground and run both on land and at sea. Though, like with the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, which transports crude oil, some hazardous liquid pipelines run above ground. Pipelines link to processing plants, production platforms, wells, storage facilities, and plenty of other places. Natural disasters affect the pipeline system for a short time, which complicates, delays, and prolongs disaster response and recovery. Long-term interruptions have a detrimental influence on the economic, national security, and environment of the country.
Pipelines and their related infrastructure are susceptible to being damaged by floods, storm surge, damage from debris and debris from windstorms, and both offshore and onshore movement of land (earthquakes, subsidence, mudslides). A pipeline can rupture as a result of impacts or movement, igniting or exploding into the air, earth, or a body of water. Pipeline disruptions result in transportation sector delays and losses in fuel supply as well as natural gas infrastructure outages. These can impact the speed of the arrival of resources to the area and how long a disruption lasts because they will affect responders and their goods as well as citizens and industry in the local area, which will result in disruption of resource arrival and, ultimately, impact the rate of recovery from a disaster and create an additional risk of injury and threat to the lives of residents.
Offshore pipes may be moved laterally or exposed as a result of hurricanes, causing leaks at clamps, welds, flanges, and fittings, or being pushed apart, rupturing pipelines. Earthquake shaking, landslides, liquefaction, and lateral movement of the pipes all harm pipelines and can cause the damage to propagate. Such collisions lead to pipes compressing, wrinkle, fracture, separate, bend, and have shear.
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Hurricane Katrina wreaked havoc on natural gas infrastructure, resulting in 72 leaks from leaky or damaged offshore pipelines. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed gasoline and natural gas processing and refining facilities, resulting in a loss of roughly 8% of the nation's ability to refine/process fuels, severely reducing the domestic supply of refined fuels. Furthermore, the damages amounted to almost an 11% reduction in overall gas usage for the entire county on an average day. Hurricane Sandy, on the other hand, wreaked havoc on gasoline refineries rather than pipelines. Since the refineries were offline, and oil still could be transported through the pipeline, it slowed significantly along the pipeline in the interests of compensation for the losses of the supply chain facilities affecting areas from the Gulf Coast to the East Coast, New Jersey and New York. The earthquakes in Northridge (1994), Washington State (1997), and Napa, California (2014) all damaged pipes, allowing natural gas to escape and ignite, resulting in fires (Northridge, Napa) and explosions (Washington State), all of which caused significant property damage.