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Procurement logistics, Production logistics, Distribution logistics, and Disposal logistics are the four subsystems of logistics, primarily from a commercial standpoint. Procurement logistics, which deals with the ordering of raw materials and supplies as well as the selection of suppliers, is at the start of a value chain. The emphasis is on providing the best possible service in a timely manner. Production logistics plans, controls, and monitors in-house storage, handling, and transportation operations. Maintaining or lowering manufacturing costs is an essential component of production logistics.
The primary focus of distribution logistics, also known as sales logistics, is on the distribution and delivery of products, which might be stocks or information. Distribution logistics is also in charge of packaging and delivery service improvements. While the three subsystems mentioned above are connected in the supply chain one after the other, they are all pervaded by disposal logistics, which guarantees that trash, no longer usable items, and other residues are disposed of or (re)utilized throughout the value creation process. Because of the wide range of applications, disposal logistics can be characterized in a variety of ways, which is why it is also known as return logistics or reverse logistics, depending on the context.
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A further classification of logistics occurs at the functional level, where several functional domains are recognized and related logistics regions can be designated. As a result, there is both internal and exterior transit. Two more functional aspects are inventory management with picking and planning with storage system operation. Additional areas that can be drawn from the corresponding function include goods handling (loading, unloading, and reloading), goods inspection, and the handling and packing of the same.
However, because logistics is so process-oriented, names have emerged for subareas that either group all logistical activities into a single comprehensive process section, or the logistics processes are more individually unique, allowing them to be distinguished from other areas and sectors. These subareas can then connect with other areas, encompass them, and work together to accomplish specific roles. Due to the unique circumstances of some application settings, such as pharmaceutical logistics, hospital logistics, or contract logistics, there are additional different logistics terminology. The following requirements, among others, are considered subareas of logistics in general: Storage logistics, Transport logistics, Intralogistics, Branch logistics, Last mile logistics.
The warehouse's location, the design of the optimal storage system, warehouse technology, and warehouse organization are all logistical elements that must be planned, executed, and monitored. Furthermore, warehouse operations are included in warehouse logistics. Movement logistics includes the actual transit of products by road, air, and water from one point to another, as well as activities such as supplying shipping papers, estimating transportation time, and coordinating the utilization of transportation equipment, technology, and people.
Intralogistics is a term that refers to the mapping of all logistical operations in a specific site, which can be a production facility or a distribution center. Production logistics, warehouse logistics, packaging logistics, and distribution logistics are all examples of logistics, depending on the situation. Intralogistics encompasses the whole material flow within a facility.